HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION OF COVID-19

BACKGROUND

WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION) declared Corona Virus as pandemic on 11th March 2020.  Very first case of corona virus was in 1960 particularly as ‘cold’. 500 patients suffered from flu according to Canadian study 2001.Through method of polymerase chain reaction, it was affirmed that about 18 cases were infected with corona virus. It wasn’t dangerous till 2002.

Corona caused several cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome. When microbiologists focused on it, they found its development and concluded it as corona virus. In 2004, WHO announced it as “State Emergency”. Further a report from Hong Kong confirmed 50 Patients of SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome) and 30 confirmed as infected with corona virus.

Structure of Corona Virus

Corona Virus is spherical, single stranded surrounded with club shaped glycoprotein. It has four sub types for instance

  1. Alpha
  2. Beta
  3. Gamma
  4. Delta

It might affect human population from other affected animals such as cats, birds and dogs.

Causes of Spread of Covid-19

It can spread through air borne droplets. It can damage cells and increase infection at infection site. A particular membrane (Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), makes corona virus enter into human cells.  In 1918 flu pandemic hit the world, after that now this corona virus disease (COVID-19) has been the fifth documented virus. In December 2019, first case was seen in Wuhan China and it spread in whole world. International Committee on Virus. officially named it as (SARS-COV-2) severe acute respiratory.

It was believed that it evolved from animal and later transferred to humans therefore having ability of human-to-human transmission. Hence the name “PANDEMIC”. In 2019 a person who was enjoying his meal in Huanan Seafood market in Wuhan had corona virus. Covid-19 spread from China’s Hubei province to a viral infectious disease killing 211,000 people till now.

But scientists are still uncertain about origin of virus, spending days and months on research since it came into existence. They are continuously focusing that how pandemic began because they know that in order to curb it, only key is to highlight its origin specifically.

Professor Stephen Turner Comments

Prof Stephen turner who is head of the department of microbiology at Melbourne’s Monash University, told that most probably bats originated virus.  It was also based on this that there was interaction between an animal and human. That professor said that the virus also targeted new York200 Tiger and scientists agreed on a fact that it is highly likely that virus originated from bats.

Pangolin known as intermediary host between bats and animal. Professor of University of Sydney, found out reason for origin of virus by examining its genome. But he still claims that recognition of species is still uncertain.

Pangolins had this characteristic that virus can land on human cells and so animals like cats, buffalos and sheep have. So, then professor derived two stories on his research and facts that was

  1. Human at Wuhan Market interacted with animal that carried the virus
  2. Another one was that virus entered into humans and spread.

Once it was there, it would just spread in very less time hence making this scary pandemic to take off and generating several cases. “Analysis of the first 41 Covid-19 patients in medical journal the Lancet found that 27 of them had direct exposure to the Wuhan Market. But the same analysis found that the first unknown case of the illness did not”.

This creates doubt on previous established story.

Pandemic in Current times

This pandemic has become one of the worst pandemics in with a surprising number of 1.4 million infections in 177 countries and more than 85000 deaths globally as of 9 April 2020. There are still confusions persisting in minds of scientists related to COVID-19 origin, there can be multiple reasons. When Multiple infections came out from Huanan Seafood market in Wuhan, China intermediate host sample wasn’t taken by scientists then. And the very three patients in beginning hadn’t went to that market.

As suggested earlier, it was somehow clear that pangolins might be interested hosts between bats and humans as it seems to be similar to pangolin coronavirus. Still scientists’ opinions differ about its origin as its spike protein looks like exactly that it can penetrate in human receptor hence making possible human to human transmission.

Confirmed Cases Report

Spreading cases of Covid-19

On 13 January 2020 ministry of public health Thailand were reported 1 Patient imported from Wuhan, China. Then on 20th January 2020, Korea reported its first case. USA confirmed its first case on 23rd Jan.

Out of 177 countries only some of countries were able to pass the peak of epidemic. While increasing number of cases are seen in most of the countries. It proved to be a first time in history of pandemics, that info was shared between scientists, infectious diseases and policy makers.

SARS-COV-2

Agent of Covid-19 known as SARS-COV-2 gets spreaded through droplets and consequently one individual can affect three individuals. It takes an incubation period of 5-6 days. To find a good cure of COVID-19, WHO has recently launched an International clinical trial called the solidarity trial. This trial will compare four treatment options and compare against standard to check effective treatment against Covid-19. To search Vaccine regarding Covid-19 is first and foremost priority of Research labs and doctors now a days and all over the world.

There are many efforts currently in progress for it.

In the beginning of pandemic, a very strict lockdown was imposed all over the world, trade markets affected, offices closed and employee performance to save extent too affected. Now 2nd time lockdown is imposed in Pakistan. In this situation, less gatherings, closure of institutions, isolation of individuals is possible.  

Way of Communication gets affected from Covid-19

As its news was circulating everywhere on social media, on radios, televisions, trending on twitter that generally created a fear in minds of many people and it’s true that this pandemic is dangerous. It was highly recommended by doctors that not to interact with each other for long as it creates a higher risk of transmission of COVID-19. It was advised that employees in an organization must not be having long discussion seminars or meetings in fact they should conversate behind a glass or while wearing a mask.  This way they can communicate while handling chores related to office and work won’t get affected. Further keeping safe from COVID-19 Spread. It becomes incumbent to use new technology for communication such as platforms like zoom etc. that lacks one to one communication and creates stress among employees. Thereby, affecting their mental health.

Leisure activities affected

Often Employees are given T/A (travelling allowance) to visit northern or mountainous areas but now can’t travel due to COVID. Thereby stopping those leisure activities. Work load increases affecting business then it will have impact on their livelihood. If they don’t work then they are going to lag behind. Social activities, any sports or games also not going on for the time being.

Workplace Isolation

There is no alternative to physical and healthy interactions, online meeting and online work just makes everyone something like a machine. Just listen and do work. But when a person goes to his/her workplace he meets everyone there are more strong feelings, interactions and physical gestures. Manger can observe his /er employee. Therefore, employees who like to go to workplaces and work actively will feel boredom and lethargic at homes. However, it can have adverse effect on them as they can’t interact that way.

Lack of Peer Advice

Often you are in a situation that you feel the need to discuss with your peers and take on their advice. It can be related to your office or your everyday life matters! Yeah, in that environment you can have some tips about relaxing, how to to have tranquility in life. Sharing good or bad moments of your life, any experience related to shopping or buying of a product. Conversation on latest fashion trends, any prevailing situation in world, short chit-chat or gossip can alleviate your mood. And after you share your problem with one of your peers, ultimately you feel comfortable taking their advice and your mood lightens.

Family Distractions

It’s true that amongst this pandemic employees have to do work from home and there are also house chores. Sometimes you woke up late and it can disturb your routine. Hence it can affect an employee level of productivity.

Role Overload

It can be stressful for an employee he has to work from home and he is also a father or husband. These Multiple roles can make him over-burden hence his disturbing work-life balance.

Measures to Control Pandemic

This COVID-19 and its dangerous impact signals about other obvious diseases too. It is once in a life pandemic. It is going on really unpredictable and impossible to forecast where this pandemic will lead too. Countries are deciding on to approach for its medical treatment or vaccine but it would take an year.

Recent Updates

Recent search discovered that risk of covid-19 is less in females if they are taking vitamins D and minerals. Scientists are designing a device that will use camera to examine virus particles are present in sample. It would give details of it. Pfizer vaccine found out to be quite effective against corona virus. USA is working with FDA (Food and drug administration) to have its approval. Temperature inversions might be reason of making corona virus at a high rate all over the world.

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